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IUCN SULi Digest

May-September 2021

We're back with a bumper edition covering May to September! In this edition you can find journal articles from this period as well as more recent news items on sustainable use and livelihoods.

This Digest is an IUCN SULi information service intended to keep you up to date with recent journal articles and news on issues relating to sustainable use and livelihoods. Please note that the summaries provided are not the official abstracts of the articles.

Our current watch list includes the following journals and news sources: Africa Biodiversity Collaborative GroupAfrica Sustainable Conservation NewsAfrican Journal of EcologyAgriculture, Ecosystems & EnvironmentAMBIOAnimal ConservationAntipodeBiodiversity and ConservationBiological ConservationConservation FrontlinesThe Conservation ImperativeConservation LettersConservation Science and PracticeConservation and SocietyThe ConversationDevelopment and ChangeDiversity and DistributionsEcological EconomicsEcology and SocietyEnvironmental HistoryForest CoverFrontline DispatchesThe Geographic JournalGlobal Environmental ChangeHuman EcologyHuman Dimensions of WildlifeThe IndependentLocal EnvironmentMongabayNational GeographicNatural Resources ForumPARKS; PNASRegional Environmental ChangeSustainabilityTourist Studies and World Development.

If you would like to sign up to receive the Digest on an ongoing basis, please click here.

  • Dilys Roe, Chair IUCN SULi
1. Aditya V, Goswami R, Mendis A and R Roop (2021) Scale of the issue: Mapping the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on pangolin trade across India. Biological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109136
The authors analyse publicly available online seizure reports involving pangolins across India before (2018–2019) and during the pandemic (March–August 2020), using a longitudinal study design to estimate how lockdowns have impacted pangolin trade.
2. Ferrer A, et al (2021) COVID-19 and small-scale fisheries in southeast Asia: Impacts and responses. Asian Fisheries Society. 
DOI: 10.33997/j.afs.2021.34.1.011 (PDF)
This paper describes the impacts of and responses to COVID-19 of small-scale fisheries in Southeast Asia. While short-term responses of providing food and financial assistance have been helpful, long-term support to address pandemics such as COVID-19 will require developing more resilient fishing households.
3. Gibbons D, et al (2021) The relative importance of COVID-19 pandemic impacts on biodiversity conservation globally. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13781 (Open access)
Through a process of expert consultation, the authors identify and categorise the ways in which biodiversity and its conservation has been or could be impacted by the pandemic globally; nearly 60% of which were broadly negative in impact.
4. Hambira W, Stone L and V Pagiwa (2021) Botswana nature-based tourism and COVID-19: Transformational implications for the future. Development Southern Africa. DOI: 10.1080/0376835X.2021.1955661
Using qualitative document analysis, this paper presents an analysis of the interlinkages between COVID-19 and nature-based tourism, resultant impacts and implications for the future of tourism in Botswana. Results show that the disease spread in Botswana has resulted in far reaching socio-economic and environmental repercussions.

5. Kalema-Zikusoka G, Rubanga S, Ngabirano A and L Zikusoka (2021) Mitigating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on gorilla conservation: Lessons from Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Frontiers in Public Health. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.655175 (Open access)
In their work to mitigate impacts of Covid-19, Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH) show the need to support non-tourism dependent community livelihoods, and more responsible tourism to the great apes, which CTPH is advocating to governments, donors and tour companies through an Africa CSO Biodiversity Alliance policy brief.
6. Kideghesho J, Kimaro H, Mayengo G and A Kisingo (2021) Will Tanzania’s wildlife sector survive the COVID-19 pandemic? Tropical Conservation Science. 
DOI: 10.1177/19400829211012682 (Open access)
Using Tanzania as a case, the authors examine the impacts and risks that wildlife sectors in Africa are facing or are likely to face as a result of this pandemic. They recognise loss of revenues from tourism as a major impact that could negatively influence the management of wildlife species and habitats.

7. Mbatha P (2021) Lockdown lessons from South Africa’s fisheries: Building resilience in small-scale fishing communities. WWF South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. Available here (PDF)

This report presents a combination of documentary evidence and first-hand insights from key informants along the entire fisheries supply chain, including small-scale fishing communities, on the socioeconomic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.
8. Petrovan S, et al (2021) Post COVID-19: A solution scan of options for preventing future zoonotic epidemics. Biological Reviews. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12774 (Open access)
The authors undertake a solution scan to identify and collate possible options for reducing the risks of further epidemic disease transmission from animals to humans. They include all categories of animals in their responses and focus on pathogens that, once transmitted from animals to humans, could acquire epidemic potential through high rates of human-to-human transmission.
9. Rahman S, et al (2021) The COVID-19 pandemic: A threat to forest and wildlife conservation in Bangladesh? Trees, Forests and People. DOI: j.tfp.2021.100119 (Open access)
In this study, evidence from newspapers, social media, remote sensing and organisational data are used to assess the impact of national lockdown on forest and wildlife conservation, including the forest-dependent people in Bangladesh.
10. Razanatsoa E, et al (2021) Fostering local involvement for biodiversity conservation in tropical regions: Lessons from Madagascar during the COVID-19 pandemic. BioTropica. DOI: 10.1111/btp.12967 (Open access)
Based on the personal experiences of conservation leaders, managers, and researchers from Madagascar, the authors discuss the coping strategies of multiple biodiversity conservation organisations during the coronavirus pandemic. They highlight the vital role of local communities in building and maintaining resilient conservation practices that are robust to global disruptions.
11. Saxena A, et al (2021) Forest livelihoods and a “green recovery” from the COVID-19 pandemic: Insights and emerging research priorities from IndiaForest Policy and Economics. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102550
For those concerned with the future of forests, the COVID-19 pandemic has simultaneously offered cause for great concern, and renewed hope. Drawing insights from research in India, the authors highlight an issue that exemplifies the tension between these two poles: the role of forests as social safety nets for rural communities in developing countries.
12. Shoo R, et al (2021) Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: Vulnerability and survival amidst COVID-19. IntechOpen. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97396 (Open access)
This chapter examines the extent to which the decline of tourism revenues due to COVID-19 pandemic has affected WMAs as a framework for local communities to manage and benefit from wildlife. Findings show that the decline of tourism revenues triggers unprecedented adverse effects on the conservation of wildlife resources within WMAs.
13. Smith W (2021) Understanding the changing role of global public health in biodiversity conservation. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01576-0 (Open access)
Reviewing emerging policy positions from key conservation organisations, this article argues that the proposed responses to the COVID-19 pandemic hold the potential to (a) amplify existing people-park conflicts, and (b) generate new tensions by integrating global systems of viral surveillance into biodiversity conservation.
14. Van Doormaal N, Spencer C and P Allin (2021) Poaching in the COVID-19 world: Observations and possible outcomes for South AfricaAvailable here (PDF)
The authors unpack some observations and possible outcomes, by analysing the behaviour of rhino poachers and bushmeat poachers. Levels of rhino poaching peaked in 2017, but a decline can be observed from that moment onward. They did not find evidence that the lockdown resulted in an increase in bushmeat poaching.
15. White A (2021) The post-COVID landscape: A chance to end the use of threatened wild animals in traditional Chinese medicine? The Ecological Citizen. Available here (PDF)
Discussion of wildlife trade policy has seen a wide range of stakeholders in China, including lawmakers, academics, NGOs and medical experts, call for further policy amendments to end the use of threatened wild animal species in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
News articles, blogs etc.
16. Bushmeat poaching is on the rise in Kenya as Covid hunger drives hunt for antelopes and giraffes -> Brand new figures from the Kenya Wildlife Service show that poaching is on the rise. Seizures of illegal bushmeat are set to hit a record high.
17. Arantes C, et al (2021) Institutional effects on ecological outcomes of community-based management of fisheries in the Amazon. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01575-1
The authors assess whether and how institutional design principles affect the ecological outcomes of community-based management (CBM) schemes for arapaima. Their results indicate that efforts aimed at strengthening the presence of defined boundaries and graduated sanctions in communities hold promise to improve the effectiveness of arapaima CBM regionally.
18. Hernandez Marentes M (2021) Traditional forest-related knowledge and agrobiodiversity preservation: The case of the chagras in the Indigenous Reserve of Monochoa (Colombia). Biodiversity Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-021-02263-y (Open access)
The paper takes into consideration the Indigenous Reserve of Monochoa as an example of how traditional knowledge can support a rich biodiversity conservation. The preservation and adaptation of traditional knowledge and practices, a decentralised autonomous governance system demonstrates that local communities not only can be part of ecosystems with unique biodiversity, but that they can represent the main actors for an active conservation of biodiversity.
19. Ndlovu M (2021) Integrating Nguni cattle into black rhino reserves: Could this be a novel rural community-based conservation model? Academia Letters. DOI: 10.20935/AL3242

The proposed community-based conservation model presents an opportunity to pilot a culturally familiar, ecologically significant, and economically sustainable mixed land-use system that will complement efforts to manage the critically endangered black rhino in Africa
20. Rice W, Sowman M and M Bavinck (2021) Informing a conservation policy-praxis disjuncture: A ‘commons’ perspective to tackling coastal-marine community-conserved area implementation in South AfricaBiological Conservation. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109296 (Open access)
The authors explore the applicability of established ‘commons’ design principles, and factors enabling community-based conservation, to community-based coastal and marine conservation initiatives in South Africa.
21. Robinson L, et al (2021) The challenges of community-based natural resource management in pastoral rangelands. Society and Natural Resources. DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2021.1946629 (Open access)
Recognising that CBNRM approaches have had mixed success in pastoral rangelands, this paper compares five case studies—two from Kenya, two from Ethiopia and one from Tunisia—to identify aspects of social-ecological context that affect the implementation and success of CBNRM in pastoral settings.
News articles, blogs etc.

22. ‘Conservation should be seen as what communities have always done’, says John Kamanga -> Efforts to protect wildlife and landscapes have generally been shifting away from “fortress conservation” toward more inclusive approaches. Among these latter approaches are community conservancies.
23. Interview: Indigenous-led conservation in Nagaland preserves rare wildlife -> Researcher Ramya Nair’s work with the Indigenous Yimkhiung Naga has found clouded leopards, wild dogs and a host of other wildlife in community-owned forests despite hunting pressure.

24. Arko-Achemfuor A (2021) Balancing the interests of wildlife and humans resulting in sustainable ecotourism: The case of Boabeng-Fiema Monkeys’ Sanctuary, Ghana. In McIntyre-Mills J and Y Corcoran-Nantes (eds) From Polarisation to Multispecies Relationships. Contemporary Systems Thinking. Springer, Singapore. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-33-6884-2_22
The paper aims to shed light on a sustainable ecotourism endeavour in two neighbouring rural communities in the Bono East Region in Ghana. The authors explore the understanding, beliefs and behaviour of the respondents to describe the place and circumstances in which they live, and to analyse the impact the ecotourism endeavour is making in their communities.
25. Cusack C, et al (2021) Marine ecotourism for small pelagics as a source of alternative income generating activities to fisheries in a tropical communityBiological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109242
The authors assess the local conditions which have enabled the creation of Alternative Income Generating Activities to fishing based on marine ecotourism in Moalboal, Philippines. The results show strong community engagement in the governance of the ecotourism resource and the retention and distribution of economic benefits within the local community.
26. Graci S (2021) Indigenous ecotourism in Canada. In Fennell D (ed) Routledge Handbook of Ecotourism, Routledge, London. DOI: 10.4324/9781003001768
This chapter discusses Indigenous ecotourism in Canada by identifying barriers and benefits. Two case studies, Tundra North Tours in Inuvik, Northwest Territories and Spirit Bear Lodge in Klemtu, British Columbia are examined.
27. Herindra Lasso A and H Dahles (2021) A community perspective on local ecotourism development: Lessons from Komodo National Park. Tourism Geographies. DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2021.1953123
This paper investigates a nature-based UNESCO heritage site that has developed into a prominent ecotourist destination in Indonesia: Komodo National Park. In offering a critical analysis of the transition to an ecotourist-driven economy from a local perspective, it reveals a series of failures to deliver on the sustainable development goals.
28. Holland K, et al (2021) Impacts of tourism on support for conservation, local livelihoods, and community resilience around Maasai Mara National Reserve, KenyaJournal of Sustainable Tourism. 
DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2021.1932927
The authors examine how individual and community-level involvement in tourism influences support for conservation, reliance on the natural environment, and perceptions of governance and community resilience in communities around Maasai Mara National Reserve.
29. Kia Z (2021) Ecotourism in Indonesia: Local community involvement and the affecting factors. Journal of Governance and Public Policy. DOI: 10.18196/jgpp.v8i2.10789 (Open access)
This study analyses local community involvement as well as the affecting factors in managing ecotourism in Indonesia. The authors conclude that efforts to empower local communities in ecotourism destinations must be further improved.
30. Lebrão C, et al (2021) Community-based ecotourism and primate watching as a conservation tool in the Amazon rainforestInternational Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-021-00226-2
The authors present the preliminary results of an initiative of primate tourism in the Mamirauá Reserve for Sustainable Development (SDR), Brazil. They conclude that primate tourism has a high potential to strengthen the synergism between traditional and scientific knowledge and promote social and economic benefits for local communities.
31. Makwindi N and J Ndlovu (2021) Prospects and challenges of community-based tourism as a livelihood diversification strategy at Sehlabathebe National Park in Lesotho. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure. DOI: 10.46222/ajhtl.19770720-104 (Open access)
The article examines the prospects and challenges of community-based tourism as a livelihood diversification strategy for people living adjacent to the Sehlabathebe National Park. It concludes that the establishment of the park has not significantly improved the status quo of the community.
32. Qian Z (2021) Territorial governance, market integration and Indigenous citizens in China’s state-led eco-tourism: Developing the Xixi National Wetland Park. Journal of China Tourism Research. DOI: 10.1080/19388160.2021.1973932

This paper explores the structural limits of state-led eco-tourism and calls for balancing ecological transformation and socioeconomic sustainability. It examines the issues of environmental justice and ecological advancement confronting local communities and the Indigenous population in the Xixi National Wetland Park development.
33. Rahman M, Masud M, Akhtar R and M Hossain (2021) Impact of community participation on sustainable development of marine protected areas: Assessment of ecotourism developmentInternational Journal of Tourism Research. 
DOI: 10.1002/jtr.2480
This study aims to investigate the role of community participation and its impact on economic, environmental, and social sustainability in marine protected areas in Malaysia through the development of ecotourism. The results indicate that community participation explains a significant amount of variance in ecotourism development.
34. Rao A and S Saksena (2021) Wildlife tourism and local communities: Evidence from IndiaAnnals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights. DOI: 10.1016/j.annale.2021.100016 (Open access)
This paper examines the impact of wildlife tourism on the livelihoods of the local population around the Ranthambhore National Park in India. An empirical assessment of the economic impacts of tourism reveals that tourism development has failed to provide tangible benefits to the community.
35. Zhou W, et al (2021) The role of eco-tourism in ecological conservation in giant panda nature reserve. Journal of Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113077
This study constructs a framework to measure households' forest conservation activities and conducts a survey in giant panda nature reserves in Sichuan Province. The results show that community-based ecotourism could significantly improve the income of households engaged in it.
News articles, blogs etc.

No new news articles or blogs at this time.

Illegal wildlife trade
36. Arias M, et al (2021) Prevalence and characteristics of illegal jaguar trade in northwestern Bolivia. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.444 (Open access)
The authors interview people in a rural area implicated in the jaguar trade, using direct and indirect questions to explore the prevalence and characteristics of the illegal jaguar trade and its links to foreign demand. Overall, jaguar trade in Bolivia has more diverse actors and drivers than seizures may suggest.
37. Assogba N and D Zhang (2021) An economic analysis of poaching: Linking with village characteristics surrounding a protected areaHuman Dimensions of Wildlife. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2021.1956649
The authors analyse effects of socioeconomic, institutional, and locational characteristics of villages in the periphery of the W Reserve in West Africa on poaching. Their results show that population size and distance of the villages to the reserve are related to poaching in the reserve.
38. Hinsley A, et al (2021) Combining data from consumers and traditional medicine practitioners to provide a more complete picture of Chinese bear bile marketsPeople and Nature. DOI: 10.1002/pan3.10249 (Open access)
The authors triangulate data on bear bile consumption from 3,646 members of the public, 80 pharmacy workers and 38 Traditional Chinese Medicine doctors in four provincial capital cities across China. They show that gathering perspectives from different wildlife market actors can generate a more complete picture of trade.
39. Kahler J and M Rinkus (2021) Women and wildlife crime: Hidden offenders, protectors and victims. Oryx. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605321000193 (Open access)
The authors consider the implications of the lack of knowledge of women's direct and indirect roles in wildlife security. They argue that more intentional research into the direct and indirect roles of women in wildlife crime is needed to address wildlife crime, protect biodiversity and support social justice in response to wildlife crimes.
40. Liew J, et al (2021) International socioeconomic inequality drives trade patterns in the global wildlife market. Science Advances. 
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf7679
The paper suggests that international policies for reducing the global wildlife trade should address inequalities between signatory states, possibly using incentive/compensation-driven programs modelled after other transnational environmental initiatives.
41. Lunstrum E, et al (2021) The rhino horn trade and radical inequality as environmental conflict. Journal of Peasant Studies. DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2021.1961130

The authors show how the illicit rhino horn economy is a telling instance of environmental conflict—largely between ground-level hunters and increasingly militarised state conservation forces—that emerges from a context of radical inequality.
42. Massé F, Givá N and E Lunstrum (2021) A feminist political ecology of wildlife crime: The gendered dimensions of a poaching economy and its impacts in Southern AfricaGeoforum. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2021.07.031
The authors develop a feminist political ecology of wildlife crime by drawing on feminist political ecology and complementing it with insights from feminist criminology. They draw on fieldwork in the Mozambican borderlands adjacent to South Africa’s Kruger National Park on the illicit rhino horn economy to show how two stark gendered dynamics emerge.
43. Oyanede R, Gelcich S, Mathieu E and E.J. Milner-Gulland (2021) A dynamic simulation model to support reduction in illegal trade within legal wildlife markets. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13814 (Open access)
This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to support reduction in illegal wildlife trade within legal markets by focusing on the incentives to trade legal or illegal products faced by traders.
44. Sung Y-H, Lee W-H, Ka-Wah Leung F and J Fong (2021) Prevalence of illegal turtle trade on social media and implications for wildlife trade monitoring. Biological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109245
The authors simultaneously monitor the turtle trade on two internet platforms (social media, internet forum) and the largest Hong Kong pet market for 12 months. They find that the scale of trade is greatest on social media, with the highest numbers of species (all, potentially illegal, CITES-listed and threatened species) and sellers.
News articles, blogs etc.

No new news articles or blogs at this time.

Medicinal plant harvest and use

45. Rasethe M, Potgieter M and M Pfab (2021) Local management strategies and attitudes towards selected threatened or protected plant species in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biodiversitas. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220922 (Open access)
This study investigates the current management strategies employed by local people in the Limpopo Province for selected threatened or protected plant species. It recommends that collaborative partnerships be initiated between government and Traditional Leaders in relation to managing the threatened or protected plant species in communal lands.
46. Sharma A, Patel S and G Singh (2021) Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants among three tribal communities of Vindhyan highlands, India: An approach for their conservation and sustainability. Environmental Sustainability. DOI: 10.1007/s42398-021-00196-4
The study explores ethnomedicines, use of wild edible plants for dietary purpose and associated traditional knowledge of Baiga, Kharwar and Gond tribal communities. The authors show that policies linked to medicinal plants and wild edibles under various threat categories need to be linked to the sustainable management of high valued species and nutritional security.
47. Shuaib M, et al (2021) Traditional knowledge about medicinal plant in the remote areas of Wari Tehsil, Dir Upper, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology. DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.246803 (Open access)
This study aims to inventory medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 in northern Pakistan. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs.
48. Ssenku J, et al (2021) Medicinal plants in Butalejja District, Eastern Uganda: Plants, medical importance, conservation and medicinal traditional knowledge. Research Square. DOI: 10.21203/ (Open access)
This study documents medicinal plant species and examines the approaches used in preventing extinction of these species and the associated Medicinal Traditional Knowledge (MTK) in Butalejja district. It finds that the conservation of medicinal plants and MTK is largely attributed to traditional cultural values.

News articles, blogs etc.
49. Climate change threatens to squeeze out Indonesia’s medicinal plants -> More than half of medicinal plant species in Indonesia won’t be able to grow in most of their current range by 2050 due to climate change, a new study says.
50. Extinction of Indigenous languages leads to loss of exclusive knowledge about medicinal plants -> A study shows that a large proportion of existing medicinal plant knowledge is linked to threatened Indigenous languages.
Recreational hunting
51. Adhikari L, et al (2021) Community-based trophy hunting programs secure biodiversity and livelihoods: Learnings from Asia's high mountain communities and landscapes. Environmental Challenges. DOI: 10.1016/j.envc.2021.100175 (Open access)
This article reviews the effectiveness of the community-based trophy hunting (CHTP) model for conserving rare and threatened wildlife populations, protected and conserved areas, and community welfare and economic uplift, focusing on Pakistan and Tajikistan.  Results reveal that CTHP has been instrumental in halting illegal hunting and poaching wildlife while improving community livelihood and local economy.
52. Blank D and Y Li (2021) Sustainable use of wildlife resources in Central AsiaRegional Sustainability. DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.001 (Open access)
The authors suggest that local people in central Asian countries should join wildlife protection societies and be given official rights to benefit from the development of hunting tourism in the future.
53. Nyamayedenga S, Mashapa C, Chateya R and E Gandiwa (2021) An assessment of the impact of the 2014 US elephant trophy importation ban on the hunting patterns in Matetsi Hunting Complex, north-west Zimbabwe. Global Ecology and Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01758 (Open access)
This study assesses the influence of a 2014 USA imposed ban on the importation of elephant hunted trophies from Zimbabwe on the hunting patterns in Matetsi Hunting Complex. It concludes that trophy hunting and trade bans by some countries without an alternative global conservation framework that provides conservation incentives will likely reverse gains in wildlife conservation and rural development.
54. van Houdt S, et al (2021) Divergent views on trophy hunting in Africa, and what this may mean for research and policy. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12840 (Open access)
The authors explore demographic and regional differences in opinion regards support for African trophy hunting, trophy import bans, and outside funding of conservation estates supported by hunting. They find that location, demography, and conservation background influences opinion.
News articles, blogs etc.

55. Another giant elephant trophy hunted – is this conservation? -> As offensive as the author finds the idea of shooting an animal, they can accept that the practice is not entirely harmful.
56. Conserving wildlife in Africa…conservation success impossible without international hunting -> Why should African rural communities co-existing with wildlife and receiving zero benefits from it bother conserving wildlife that damages their crops, kills their livestock, loved ones and destroys their property?
57. UK charity raises funds at expense of Africans, says Chamber of Environment -> As the UK parliament consider bans on hunting trophy imports, community leaders representing millions of rural Africans have launched an official complaint against one of the key players in the campaigns against trophy hunting.
58. Is trophy hunting the only tool for wildlife management‪? -> Adam Hart talks about African trophy hunting, and why even though he is against hunting personally, he supports it anyway.
59. Trophy hunting, hunting, hunters, trophies and antis -> This episode features Dr. Nikolaj Bichel. Nikolaj completed a PhD thesis on trophy hunting, hunting, hunters, and anti hunters.
60. Congo’s bongos are in danger, and curbs on trophy hunting could save them -> There are fewer than 30,000 bongos left today, inhabiting wooded expanses south of the Sahara in Africa, including in the Republic of Congo, which allows commercial hunting of these prized ungulates.
61. Are anti-hunting campaigns misleading you? -> Moreangels Mbizah speaks to the Community Leaders Network to find out more about what they would like the public to know about misleading statements made during anti-hunting campaigns.

Rights-based conservation
62. Bennett N, et al (2021) Advancing social equity in and through marine conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.711538 (Open access)
The authors aim to bring greater attention to how to operationalise social equity in and through the pursuit of marine conservation through reviewing how it can be better integrated in policy and practice.
63. Boyd D and S Keene (2021) Human rights-based approaches to conserving biodiversity: Equitable, effective and imperative. UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment. Available here (PDF)
This policy brief advocates for a more inclusive, just and sustainable approach to safeguarding and restoring biodiversity, and outline the human rights costs and limited efficacy of exclusionary conservation.
64. Brittain S, Tugendhat H, Newing H and E.J. Milner-Gulland (2021) Conservation and the rights of Indigenous peoples and local communities: Looking forwards. Oryx. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605321000946 (Open access)
The authors look back through the Oryx archives, to stimulate reflection on how conservation has engaged with human rights, how that has intersected with evolving global policy, and what we can learn from this history to ensure that human rights are better understood and placed at the centre of conservation policy and practice.
65. Dawson N, et al (2021) The role of Indigenous peoples and local communities in effective and equitable conservation. Ecology and Society. DOI: 10.5751/ES-12625-260319 (Open access)
The authors present a systematic review and narrative synthesis of publications investigating how different forms of governance influence conservation outcomes. They find that most studies presenting positive outcomes for both well-being and conservation come from cases where Indigenous peoples and local communities play a central role.
66. ICCA Consortium (2021) Territories of Life: 2021 Report. ICCA Consortium: worldwide. Available here (Open access)
As negotiations intensify ahead of the UN biodiversity and climate conferences in late 2021, the time is now to recognise Indigenous peoples and local communities as central to sustaining the diversity of life on Earth.
67. Obura D, et al (2021) Integrate biodiversity targets from local to global levelsScience. DOI: 10.1126/science.abh2234
Decisions to be made at COP 15 to the CBD will shape biodiversity conservation approaches for the next 30 years. Reflecting from their African perspective, the authors applaud the necessary increase in ambition to conserve nature, but share alarm about the limited equity and justice in establishment of protected areas and impacts on people.
68. Reyes-García V, et al (2021) Recognising Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ rights and agency in the post-2020 Biodiversity Agenda. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01561-7 (Open access)
Drawing on the work of Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars, the authors argue that transformative change requires the foregrounding of Indigenous peoples’ and local communities’ rights and agency in biodiversity policy.
News articles, blogs etc.

69. ‘Global Indigenous Agenda’ for land rights, conservation launched at IUCN congress -> The agenda was released following a summit for Indigenous participants at the IUCN World Conservation Congress, and calls for greater recognition of the link between nature conservation and Indigenous land rights.
70. It’s time to scrutinize who’s in the room when conservation decisions are made, says Laly Lichtenfeld -> Worldwide concern about injustice and inequity, the impacts of the pandemic, and the worsening effects of global environmental degradation has accelerated change in the conservation sector, a field that has historically been relatively slow to evolve.

Small scale fisheries management
71. Booth H, et al (2021) Estimating economic losses to small-scale fishers from shark conservation: A hedonic price analysis. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.494 (Open access)
The authors aim to understand shark markets and explore the economic costs of shark conservation for small-scale fishers. They focus on a semi-commercial shark fishery in Indonesia—which poses a threat to some shark species, but provides important economic and subsistence value for a coastal community—and use hedonic price analysis to estimate market prices and welfare measures for threatened and CITES-listed sharks.
72. Danquah J, Roberts C and M Appiah (2021) Effects of decline in fish landings on the livelihoods of coastal communities in central region of Ghana. Coastal Management. Available here
This study assesses the causes and effects of the decline in fish landings on the livelihoods of coastal communities in Ghana. The results indicate that fish landings are declining, and this is affecting the income levels of fisherfolk. However, the impact of income decline on the female fisherfolk is lower as compared to their male counterparts.
73. Galligan B (2021) Fisheries extractivism and the right to subsistence: Conflicting governance models and the legal structures that enact them. Marine Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104729
The author illustrates the conflict between extractivism and ethical norms in international fisheries law, using the case of South African small-scale fisheries. They argue that, if global fisheries are to contribute more fully to the realisation of the human right to subsistence, the extractivist model will need to be seriously constrained and ethical norms will have to be given pride of place in fisheries law and policy.
74. García-Lorenzo I, Ahsan D and M Varela-Lafuente (2021) Community-based fisheries organisations and sustainable development: Lessons learned from a comparison between European and Asian countries. Marine Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104672
This paper discusses different aspects of the contribution of community-based fisheries organisations to sustainable development in small-scale fisheries. To do this, a comparative analysis is carried with cases studies from Spain, Portugal, Cambodia, Vietnam and Bangladesh.
75. Stacey N, et al (2021) Developing sustainable small-scale fisheries livelihoods in Indonesia: Trends, enabling and constraining factors, and future opportunities. Marine Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104654 (Open access)
The authors apply the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to analyse the characteristics and immediate and longer-term outcomes of 20 small-scale fisheries livelihood-focused intervention programs implemented in coastal communities across the Indonesian Archipelago over the last two decades.
76. Steel J, et al (2021) Understanding barriers, access, and management of marine mixed-stock fisheries in an era of reconciliation: Indigenous-led salmon monitoring in British Columbia. Facets. DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0080 (Open access)
The authors seek to understand current perceptions among Haíłzaqv (Heiltsuk) fishers towards salmon fisheries and their management. Their findings suggest that low salmon abundance, increased fishing competition, and high costs associated with participation in marine mixed-stock fisheries currently hinder access and equity for Haíłzaqv fishers.
77. Thanh H, Tschakert P and M Hipsey (2021) Examining fishery common-pool resource problems in the largest lagoon of Southeast Asia through a participatory systems approach. Socio-Ecological Practice Research. DOI: 10.1007/s42532-021-00085-4
This paper develops a joint stakeholder understanding of system structure, feedback mechanisms, and system archetypes of a small-scale fisheries system in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. It shows how reducing intensified resource exploitation and expanding livelihood alternatives for communities are key towards more sustainable pathways for this common-pool resource system.
78. Williams S (2021) ‘I fish because I am a fisher’: Exploring livelihood and fishing practices to justify claims for access to small-scale fisheries resources in South Africa. HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v77i3.6585 (Open access)
This article considers the role of cultural and livelihood experiences of fishers in articulating claims for accessing fisheries resources. It discusses how fishers as a community have endured systematic dispossession and exclusion and how cultural significance of the fishery takes centre stage when claims for access to fisheries resources were made.
News articles, blogs etc.

79. Fish sanctuaries and community support for conservation of Meghalaya’s mahseer -> The sustainable fishing plan has helped people get a bigger catch in the areas where fishing is allowed. Eco-tourism also draws revenue, boosting the socio-economic condition of the local communities.

Sustainable/community-based forest management
80. Bocci C and K Mishra (2021) Forest power: The impact of community forest management on female empowermentEcological Economics. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2021.107105
The authors analyse a household-level survey of forest-dwelling residents living in the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala to assess whether participating in community forest management gives females more household decision-making power, a proxy for empowerment.
81. de Andrade R, Neto M and S Candido (2021) Implementing community-based forest management in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest: A strategic action fields perspective. Environmental Politics. 
DOI: 10.1080/09644016.2021.1933799
This study assesses the conditions under which forest-dependent groups in the Brazilian Amazon may overcome inequalities in the legal access to forest resources. Through the development of contrasting case studies, it addresses attempts made by two community-based associations that represent those groups to legalise their timber production.
82. Frey G, Charnley S and J Makala (2021) Economic viability of community-based forest management for certified timber production in southeastern TanzaniaWorld Development. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105491
The authors conduct an economic and financial evaluation of a group of Community Forests (CFs) in Tanzania that sell high-value tropical timber from Forest Stewardship Council–certified CFs. They find that this group of CFs are currently not economically viable, with forest management costs 2.6 times forest revenues.
83. Hajjar R, et al (2021) Research frontiers on forests, trees, and poverty dynamicsForest Policy and Economics. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102554
The authors highlight five research priorities that require urgent attention if policy makers and practitioners are to realise the potential for forests and tree-based systems to contribute to poverty alleviation.
84. Hing S and R Riggs (2021) Re-thinking benefits of community protected areas in Mondulkiri, Cambodia. Trees, Forests and People. DOI: 10.1016/j.tfp.2021.100128 (Open access)
The authors report on the short-term results of a program to support Community Protected Areas in Mondulkiri, Cambodia. The results show that perceived benefits are linked to non-monetary attributes of the program, such as access to information and resources.
85. Kahsay G, Nordén A and E Bulte (2021) Women participation in formal decision-making: Empirical evidence from participatory forest management in Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102363 (Open access)

This study analyses the association between participation of women in decision-making of forest user groups in Ethiopia and several forest management outcomes. It finds that participation of women in executive committees (i.e., formal decision-making) is associated with greater forest benefits, and an improved (perceived and actual) condition of the forest.
86. Loveridge R, et al (2021) Certified community forests positively impact human wellbeing and conservation effectiveness and improve the performance of nearby national protected areas. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12831 (Open access)
The authors assess (1) the impact of certified community forests (CFs) on wellbeing and conservation effectiveness; (2) gender inequality and elite capture; (3) interaction effects with neighbouring national PAs. They find that CFs positively impacted wellbeing, conservation effectiveness, and reduced gender inequality, though they did not reduce elite capture.
87. Mbeche R, Ateka J, Herrmann R and U Grote (2021) Understanding forest users' participation in participatory forest management (PFM): Insights from Mt. Elgon forest ecosystem, Kenya. Forest Policy and Economics. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102507 (Open access)
The authors examine the factors that support or constrain forest dependent people's participation in a Participatory Forest Management program in Kenya. The results point to the need to take the household context into consideration during planning and implementation of the forestry programs.
88. Miller D, et al (2021) Forests, trees and poverty alleviation: Policy implications of current knowledge. Forest Policy and Economics. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102566
This paper addressed the need for greater integration of forests and trees in development policy. It distils five key findings based on the current evidence base and discuss their implications for decision-makers.
89. Razafindratsima O, et al (2021) Reviewing the evidence on the roles of forests and tree-based systems in poverty dynamics. Forest Policy and Economics.  DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102576
This paper reviews the evidence of links across multiple dimensions of poverty and well-being, based on an expert panel convened by the International Union of Forest Research Organisations and an extensive literature search. It considers whether, how, where, when, and for whom forests and trees in the wider landscape influence poverty dynamics.
90. Sarfo-Adu G (2021) Forest tenure and sustainable forest management: Drawing lessons from the literature. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. Available here (Open access)
This study outlines how frustrating tenure regimes deprive the community of the needed benefits and subsequent untoward behaviour unleashed on forests. It concludes that the idea of tenure rights and tenure security has implications on sustainable forest management.
91. Sherpa P (2021) Role of Indigenous Peoples in sustainable forest management: A case study from Gurung Community in Lamjung District of Nepal. International Journal of Research and Analysis in HumanitiesAvailable here (Open access)
This paper deals with the role of Indigenous Peoples in sustainable forest management in Nepal. It shows that Indigenous Peoples have a very strong social, cultural, spiritual and economic relationship with forest, land and other natural resources.
92. Wekesa C, Ndalilo L and C Manya (2021) Reconciling community livelihood needs and biodiversity conservation in Taita Hills Forests for improved livelihoods and transformational management of the landscape. In Nishi M, et al (eds) Fostering Transformative Change for Sustainability in the Context of Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS). DOI: 10.1007/978-981-33-6761-6 (Open access)
This study is conducted in villages surrounding five forest fragments to establish the conservation programmes responsible for keeping these forests intact for provision of goods and services to the local communities. The results show that the Taita community conserves the forest fragments through management practices that integrate livelihood needs in conservation.
News articles, blogs etc.

93. Indigenous Land in the Brazilian Amazon is a brake on deforestation and may start generating carbon credits -> Practices such as putting agricultural activities in previously degraded areas, forest restoration and agroforestry have prevented deforestation in their western Amazon reserve, which has dropped by half in recent years.

Sustainable use and traditional knowledge
94. Mouafo A, et al (2021) Local knowledge and use of pangolins by culturally diverse communities in the forest-savannah transition area of Cameroon. Tropical Conservation Science. Available here (PDF)
The authors investigate local peoples’ knowledge of pangolin presence, perceptions of population trends, cultural importance, consumptive and non-consumptive uses, and hunting of pangolins around Djerem National Park. Their results show the possible value of local knowledge for planning and prioritising conservation actions for pangolins.
95. Negi V, et al (2021) Scoping the need of mainstreaming Indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of bioresources in the Indian Himalayan region. Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-021-01510-w (Open access)
The present study is an attempt to document and understand the contribution of Indigenous and local knowledge to biodiversity conservation and management. Appreciation to the value of traditional and Indigenous knowledge is globally recognised for their principles of coexistence and sustainable use practices.
96. Petriello M and A Stronza (2021) Hunting as a source of local and traditional ecological knowledge among Campesinos in Nicaragua. Human Ecology. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-021-00238-9
The authors assess the local and traditional knowledge of Nicaraguan campesinos to determine whether they share cultural hunting knowledge. They find that knowledge extended from a worldview that emphasised subsistence and hunting secrets to ensure bountiful harvests, expressed through folk taxonomies, hunting strategies, campesino-dog relationships, and preparation of hunted animals.
97. Stucki D, Rodhouse T and R Reuter (2021) Effects of traditional harvest and burning on common camas (Camassia quamash) abundance in Northern Idaho: The potential for traditional resource management in a protected area wetland. Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.8010 (Open access)
The authors design a controlled experiment to evaluate the response of common camas populations to traditional bulb harvest, burning, and a combination of harvest and burning. Their study supports the integration of traditional ecological knowledge into the evidence base available for protected area wetland prairie management.
News articles, blogs etc.
No new news articles or blogs at this time.
Sustainable use measurement, monitoring, assessment
98. Kobluk H, et al (2021) Indigenous knowledge of key ecological processes confers resilience to a small-scale kelp fishery. People and Nature. DOI: 10.1002/pan3.10211 (Open access)
The authors co-designed a traditional harvest experiment, field surveys and semi-directed interviews with Indigenous resource users and managers on Canada's Pacific Coast to measure the ecological resilience of the feather boa kelp to harvest and determine what environmental variables most affected its recovery.
99. Kor L, Homewood K, Dawson T and M Diazgranados (2021) Sustainability of wild plant use in the Andean Community of South America. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01529-7 (Open access)
The authors review literature on the sustainability of wild-collected plant use in South America. Their results show the need for flexible, context-specific approaches and the importance of collaboration, with bottom-up management and conservation methods involving local communities and traditional ecological knowledge often proving most effective.
News articles, blogs etc.
No new news articles or blogs at this time.
Wild harvest for food
100. Borgerson C, et al (2021) A national-level assessment of lemur hunting pressure in Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-021-00215-5
This paper synthesises the current state of knowledge of the annual rates of household-level lemur hunting near ten protected areas, representing most ecoregions in Madagascar. It finds that lemurs are commonly hunted; the rural households in the study eat, on average, more than one lemur each year.
101. Brittain S (2021) Why eat wild meat? Local food choices, food security and desired design features of wild meat alternative projects in Cameroon. IIED, London. Available here (Open access)
This project report summarises research conducted in four villages around the Dja Faunal Reserve. The research aims to understand local food preferences and the importance of wild meat for food security, and explores which kind of wild meat-alternative projects could result in the greatest reduction in household hunting and consumption of wild meat.
102. Coad L, et al (2021) Impacts of taking, trade and consumption of terrestrial migratory species for wild meat. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. Available here (Open access)
This report identifies the impacts of wild meat taking, trade and consumption of terrestrial species that are protected by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.
103. Ingram D, et al (2021) Wild meat is still on the menu: Progress in wild meat research, policy, and practice from 2002 to 2020Annual Review of Environment and Resources. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-environ-041020-063132

The authors propose eight new recommendations for research and action for sustainable wild meat use, which would support the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
104. Kidane L and A Kejela (2021) Food security and environment conservation through sustainable use of wild and semi-wild edible plants: A case study in Berek Natural Forest, Oromia special zone, Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security. DOI: 10.1186/s40066-021-00308-7 (Open access)
The article identifies and documents wild and semi-wild edible plants (WSWEPs) and their conservation status in Berek natural forest. It finds that WSWEPs are valuable resources for improving the environment, food and nutritional security and income of households in rural areas.
105. Kurz D, et al (2021) Transformation and endurance of Indigenous hunting: Kadazandusun-Murut bearded pig hunting practices amidst oil palm expansion and urbanization in Sabah, Malaysia. People and Nature. DOI: 10.1002/pan3.10250 (Open access)

The authors focus on the socio-ecological dynamics between Kadazandusun-Murut hunters in Sabah, and bearded pigs, the favoured game animal for non-Muslim communities throughout much of Borneo. They find that, for some, bearded pig meat remains deeply tied to food provision, gifting and sharing customs, and cultural components of celebrations and feasts.
106. Lemos L, et al (2021) Social correlates of and reasons for primate meat consumption in Central AmazoniaInternational Journal of Primatology. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-021-00214-6
The authors characterise primate consumption in central Amazonia using interviews with inhabitants in three rural villages and in the city of Tefé. Their results show that the probability that a person says that they eat primates correlates positively with the percentage of their life lived in rural areas.
107. Odunlami S and J Nkata (2021) Contributions of grasscutter (Thryonomis swinderianus) hunting to the livelihood of communities in Abi local government area, Cross River state, NigeriaJournal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and EnvironmentAvailable here (Open access)
This study assesses the contributions of Grasscutter hunting to the livelihood of communities in Cross River State. Most respondents agree that grasscutter hunting contributes to their family well-being.
108. Randriamady H, et al (2021) The effect of conservation policies on wildlife hunting and consumption in north-eastern Madagascar. Environmental Conservation. DOI: 10.1017/S0376892921000217 
The authors assess the impacts of different management policies on wildlife hunting and consumption in Makira Natural Park. They find that externally developed conservation policies led to drastically reduced wildlife hunting and consumption in Makira.
109. Spira C, et al (2021) Assessing the prevalence of protected species consumption by rural communities in Makira Natural Park, Madagascar, through the unmatched count technique. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.441 (Open access)
The authors estimate the prevalence of lemur and fossa meat consumption in villages within and around Makira Natural Park using the unmatched count technique (UCT) and compare it with results from direct questioning. The UCT reveals that 53.0% of households had eaten lemur meat over the previous year and 24.2% had eaten fossa meat.
News articles, blogs etc.

110. The limits of Indigenous hunting rights in Taiwan -> On 7 May, Taiwan’s Constitutional Court made a ruling in Interpretation 803 about laws pertaining to hunting by Indigenous people.
111. For Malagasy trapped in poverty, threatened lemurs and fossas are fair game -> Half of nearly 700 households surveyed in a recent study in Makira National Park in Madagascar reported eating lemur meat and a quarter had consumed fossa meat.

Wildlife trade (and CITES)
112. Bailey C, et al (2021) Trends in the bushmeat market trade in North Sulawesi and conservation implications. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12723
This study aims to understand the bushmeat trade by describing longitudinal trends in the amount of bushmeat observed for sale in markets in North Sulawesi. The results show that although animal carcasses are still sold in high numbers, there has been an overall decrease between 2011 and 2019, particularly between 2011 and 2018.
113. Biggs D, et al (2021) Extend existing food safety systems to the global wildlife trade. The Lancet Planetary Health. DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00142-X (Open access)
The authors argue that safe trade and consumption of wildlife could align with existing global food safety regulations in agreement with the precautionary principle and in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals
114. Bullough L-A, Nguyễn N, Drury R and A Hinsley (2021) Orchid obscurity: Understanding domestic trade in wild-harvested orchids in Viet Nam. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2021.631795 (Open access)
The authors determine the structure of trade chains for orchids in key trading areas of Northern Viet Nam, and use a thematic framework to identify five groups of actors trading wild-harvested orchids. They find that trade occurs both domestically and internationally, underpinned by demand for rare, wild plants.
115. Castellanos-Galindo G, Herrón P, Navia A and H Booth (2021) Shark conservation and blanket bans in the eastern Pacific ocean. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.428 (Open access)
The authors argue that prohibiting shark fisheries in Colombia could drive fishing and trade under-ground, which will not only undermine recent efforts of local communities and researchers to manage small-scale fisheries, but will criminalise a key source of income for a historically marginalised part of Colombian society.
116. Challender D, et al (2021) Mischaracterising wildlife trade and its impacts may mislead policy processes. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12832 (Open access)
A review of recent research that uses wildlife and trade-related databases highlights three relatively widespread issues: (1) mischaracterisation of the threat that trade poses to certain species or groups, (2) misinterpretation of wildlife trade data (and illegal trade data in particular), resulting in the mischaracterisation of trade, and (3) misrepresentation of international policy processes and instruments.
117. Cheung H, Mazerolle L, Possingham H and D Biggs (2021) China's legalisation of domestic rhino horn trade: Traditional Chinese medicine practitioner perspectives and the likelihood of prescription. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2021.607660 (Open access)
The authors interview Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners in Guangdong. While 69.05% of interviewees are in favour of trade legalisation, only 38.10% thought it likely that trade legalisation will cause them to increase their prescription of rhino horn over current levels.
118. D’Cruze N, et al (2021) Characterising trade at the largest wildlife market of Amazonian Peru. Global Ecology and Conservation. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01631 (Open access)
The authors investigate the trade in live wild animals and their derivatives at the Belén Market, and additional smaller open-air markets in the Peruvian Amazon. They ask what wild animals or animal products are most profitable, what are they used for, and which wild animals are perceived by vendors to have increased most in rarity.
119. Filho R, de Castro C, Casanova C and B Bezerra (2021) Uses of nonhuman primates by humans in northeastern Brazil. 
Primates. DOI: 10.1007/s10329-021-00919-5
This paper investigates the extent of the use of primates by humans in three areas in northeastern Brazil, the country’s most impoverished region. The results show that they use the primates as a food source, as pets and medicines, and for leisure.
120. Fonseca É, Zank C, Zanini Cechin S and C Both (2021) Reptile pet trade in Brazil: A regulatory approach to sustainable biodiversity conservation. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.504 (Open access)
The pet trade regulation in Brazil is currently guided by poorly implemented policies. The authors recommend a multidisciplinary approach, based on actions to reduce legislation deficiencies and inconsistencies, intensification of inspection actions, and investment in educational actions aimed at raising societal awareness.
121. Harrington L, et al (2021) Live wild animal exports to supply the exotic pet trade: A case study from Togo using publicly available social media data. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1111/csp2.430 (Open access)
The authors use information extracted from the public Facebook accounts of two wildlife exporters in Togo and identify at least 200 species, predominantly reptiles, but also mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates, advertised as available for sale and export, between the years 2016 and 2020.
122. Hilderink M and I de Winter (2021) No need to beat around the bushmeat–The role of wildlife trade and conservation initiatives in the emergence of zoonotic diseasesHeliyon. 
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07692 (Open access)
This review explores how wildlife conservation initiatives could effectively reduce the risk of new zoonotic diseases emerging from the wildlife trade by integrating existing literature on zoonotic diseases and risk factors associated with wildlife trade.
123. Holden M and J Lockyer (2021) Poacher-population dynamics when legal trade of naturally deceased organisms funds anti-poaching enforcement. Journal of Theoretical Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110618
The authors examine the possible poacher-population dynamic consequences of legal trade funding conservation. The model consists of a manager scavenging carcasses for wildlife product, who then sells the product, and directs a portion of the revenue towards funding anti-poaching law enforcement.
124. Mayor P, et al (2021) Wild meat trade over the last 45 years in the Peruvian Amazon. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13801 (Open access)
This study brings data analyses from monitoring wild meat markets in Amazonia, comprising surveys between 1973 and 2018 carried out in the most important urban markets of Iquitos, Peru, and examines the trends and impacts of these markets in people's livelihood. Over the last five decades, wild meat sales increased, paralleling urban population growth.
125. Oyanedel R, Gelcich S and E.J. Milner-Gulland (2021) A framework for assessing and intervening in markets driving unsustainable wildlife use. Science of the Total Environment. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148328
To better assess and intervene in wildlife markets, this article proposes a framework that integrates three analytical levels. It showcases the utility of the framework in a data-limited small-scale fishery case study (common hake in Chile); the mixed-method analysis provides relevant, tailored management recommendations for improving sustainability.
126. Pham T, et al (2021) The economic value of the wildlife trade in Vietnam. CIFOR Info Brief. DOI: 10.17528/cifor/008098 (Open access)
This report reviews available data on the financial contributions of the wildlife trade at national, local and household levels, and discusses opportunities for and challenges to managing the trade in Vietnam.
127. Pragatheesh A, Deepak V, Girisha H and M Tomar (2021) A looming exotic reptile pet trade in India: patterns and knowledge gaps. Journal of Threatened Taxa. DOI: 10.11609/jott.6998.13.6.18518-18531 (Open access)
The authors conduct a study between 2018-20 to gather information of exotic reptile pet trade online and summarised CITES documentation of the yearly import export records from 1976 to 2018 by CITES secretariat. They find that there is an extensive trade of exotic reptiles in the country, comprising 84 species.
128. Skippen L, Collier J and J Mutiiria Kithuka (2021) The donkey skin trade: A growing global problem. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science. DOI: 10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2021.175262 (Open access)
Growing demand for ejiao is putting global donkey populations at risk and threatening the livelihoods of people that depend on them. This article highlights the appalling welfare conditions for donkeys caught up in both the legal and illegal trade, as well as the effects on vulnerable people and the potential for disease spread and hazards to human health.
News articles, blogs etc.

No new news articles or blogs at this time.

General (non-thematic articles on sustainable use and livelihoods)
129. Brondízio E, et al (2021) Locally based, regionally manifested, and globally relevant: Indigenous and local knowledge, values, and practices for nature. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-environ-012220-012127
This review shows that Indigenous peoples and local communities are making significant contributions to managing the health of local and regional ecosystems, to producing knowledge based in diverse values of nature, confronting societal pressures and environmental burdens, and leading and partnering in environmental governance.
130. Cariño J and M Farhan Ferrari (2021) Negotiating the futures of nature and cultures: Perspectives from Indigenous Peoples and local communities about the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity FrameworkJournal of Ethnobiology. DOI: 10.2993/0278-0771-41.2.192
The authors reveal critical weaknesses in the ways the Global Biodiversity Framework addresses the views and perspectives of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Such shortcomings include the failure to recognise and embed customary land tenure and territorial management as vital for biodiversity conservation, sustainable use, and benefit-sharing.
131. Fernández-Llamazares Á, et al (2021) Scientists' warning to humanity on threats to Indigenous and local knowledge systemsJournal of Ethnobiology. DOI: 10.2993/0278-0771-41.2.144 (Open access)
The authors contribute to the “World Scientists' Warning to Humanity,” issued by the Alliance of World Scientists, by exploring opportunities for sustaining Indigenous and Local Knowledge systems on behalf of the future stewardship of our planet.
132. Gonçalves P, et al (2021) Livelihood strategies and use of forest resources in a protected area in the Brazilian semiarid. Environment, Development and Sustainability. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-021-01529-3
The authors use an environmentally protected area in the Brazilian semiarid to describe the livelihood strategies of the local people and assess how socioeconomic variables affect the dependence on forest resources. They test whether better conserved areas have greater concentrations of useful species for local populations than less protected areas.
133. Green J, Jakins G, de Waal L and N D’Cruze (2021) Ending commercial lion farming in South Africa: A gap analysis approach. Animals. DOI: 10.3390/ani11061717 (Open access)
Using a “gap analysis” management tool, the authors aim to: (1) outline some of the key considerations regarding the current state of the lion farming industry in South Africa; and (2) propose specific action steps that could be taken within five key areas to help inform a responsible transition away from this type of wildlife farming in the biodiversity economy.
134. Heisel S, et al (2021) Assessing ecological knowledge, perceived agency, and motivations regarding wildlife and wildlife conservation in Samburu, Kenya. Biological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109305
In Samburu, Kenya, the authors assess local residents' perspectives regarding three factors known to influence pro-environmental behaviour. They find that concepts of rarity and extinction based on Western-based science are not salient in how residents think about local wildlife populations.
135. Hessami A, Bowles E, Popp J and A Ford (2021) Indigenising the North American model of wildlife conservation. Facets. DOI: 10.1139/facets-2020-0088 (Open access)
The authors identify the gaps and linkages between the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation (NAM) and Indigenous-led conservation efforts across Canada. They impart a revised NAM—the Indigenising North American Model of Wildlife Conservation—that interweaves various Indigenous worldviews and conservation practice from across Canada.
136. Hiller C and D MacMillan (2021) How worldview and personal values can shape conservation conflict – The case of captive-bred lions. Biological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109151
The authors unveil core attitudes and viewpoints of captive lion breeders in South Africa and compare them to those of key-informants from science and governance arenas. They demonstrate how the value-systems and worldviews of stakeholders influence their interpretations of scientific knowledge when assessing the conservation value of captive-bred lions.
137. Miao Z, et al (2021) Compassionate conservation and the challenge of sustainable wildlife management: A Survey of the urban public of China. Animals. DOI: 10.3390/ani11092521 (Open access)
The paper reports the findings of a questionnaire in China which investigates the attitude of the urban public toward sustainable wildlife management and wildlife conservation across a range of issues and identifies the key socio-economic and demographic factor drivers for those attitudes.
News articles, blogs etc.

138. Sustainable Use of Wildlife: IT'S THE LAW! -> Webinar recording from Resource Africa.
139. Seaweed farming offers a boost for Sri Lanka’s ‘blue economy’ ambitions -> Seaweed farming is an increasingly important part of the global food system and provides a range of benefits, including sustainable coastal livelihoods and economic diversification, food production, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and organic fertiliser.
140. Collaborative Partnership on Sustainable Wildlife Management (CPW) Wildlife Forum 2021 | IISD Earth Negotiations Bulletin –> Report of the Wildlife Forum held on 26 and 27 September including highlights and images from each day.

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