I am Anthony Frausto-Robledo, AIA, LEED AP, editor-in-chief at Architosh.com. I assemble the monthly INSIDER Xpresso newsletter to help us understand emerging technologies (emTech) and the social forces impacting CAD industries like AEC and manufacturing.
This month we are topically focused—on VR/AR/XR. Our early-stage design analysis tools feature, which we had planned for this month, is now coming in July or going straight to Architosh.
This month. In issue #28!
- Starter Course: The Top Five Must-Reads
- Special Feature: The Evolving Immersive Experience (VR/AR/XR)
- emTech: Emerging Technologies -- A focus on AR technologies impactful for AEC and manufacturing
- The Briefing: Biggest CAD Industry News Last Month
Our M1 25 Beta Group for Architosh completed its Phase 2 interviews and we are scheduled to have the M1 Mac mini raffle on 16 June 2021. Architosh will make announcements of the upcoming raffle draw on 14 June 2021 and we hope to announce the winner on Friday, 18 June 2021.
The Xpresso Index and Glossary are still on the horizon. It has been moved back to late Q2 or early Q3, 2021 to align with other Architosh updates.
Our 4th INSIDER Report is coming up and targeted for publication on Monday 28, June 2021.
The Top Five Must-Reads
I've combed the Internet to find the most interesting, compelling, or controversial stories about the AEC and manufacturing industries, and the social and emerging technological forces at play on both. This month they all focus on VR/AR:
1 - Missing the moment: Virtual reality's breakout still elusive. This article makes the point that last year's pandemic lockdown could have been VR's break-out moment. What happened? (ABCNews)
The Classic Viewmaster Viewer, 3D Model L in Red shown above and actually available on Amazon. This device popularized stereoscopy technologies into a simplified virtual experience transporting, children in particular to far-away places using matching pairs of images of the same subject shot at slightly different angles, thus creating depth when viewed together.
Why VR didn't break out when we needed it the most? In the "long development" of VR came the ViewMaster device made popular in the mid-20th century. Really a simple stereoscopic viewing device, it took millions of viewers to far away places like The Grand Canyon, using 7 pairs of film-positive images embedded in a cardboard wheel you inserted into the device.
With millions locked up in their homes, a technology that offered an escape should have been an obvious hit. Instead, people turned to Netflix and classic console computer games. It turns out, the VR headsets produced in 2020 got snapped up very quickly by professionals like architects and designers in need of ways to collaborate. The article makes the point that VR is an expensive option for consumers and that there isn't a must-have VR content that could drive up adoption. "A lot of companies out there are creating platforms you can build stuff on. But the talent and content pipeline isn't there yet," says the article. (read here).
2 - Future Predictions of How Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Will Shape Our Lives This Forbes article looks at emerging technologies in the extended reality (XR) revolution coming our way. (Forbes)
Key technologies that will make VR/AR better soon. The autonomous and smart car revolution is propelling LiDAR technology which has now reached the iPhone 12 and iPad Pro. As we note in our Special Feature article below, the tech for Apple's future XR headsets are being beta tested in their shipping devices but ultimately are not meant for iPads. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) enables "occlusion" which is where physical objects located in front of AR objects block them. This technology is vital to making AR experiences truly immersive.
Finnish Varjo introduced their XR-3 earlier this year with LiDAR technologies that enable the wearer to view and see their own hands and much more...unlocking entirely new immersive experience workflows.
Other advances include eye-tracking, lighter-weight devices, smart gloves, boots, shoes, and even full-body haptic suits. (read here for more)
3 - Denmark trial uses a virtual reality game to boost COVID vaccinations This article takes a fascinating look at how Denmark researchers are using a virtual reality game to increase vaccination rates. (Reuters)
Image capture from video in the Reuters story.
Where's the innovation? The simple game asks VR participants to walk through a square and avoid virus-infected people in a crowded square. They use color-coding to indicate who is safe and who is infected. While seemingly simple in concept, the game increases vaccination intention rates.
4 - Apple's AR Announcements at WWDC 2021 Apple is being extremely clever and coy about its VR/AR head-mounted display (HMD) plans and is using its iPhone and iPad as a beta testing ground for many of the key technologies that will make an Apple HMD a success. (CNBC)
With Apple's upcoming technologies users in Apple Maps can use their iPhone to scan buildings across the street to help the Map app guide them more accurately in pedestrian mode. This technology is identifying the environment via the camera. (Image: Apple)
What was announced? Technologies paving the way for Apple's larger device plans with VR/AR include Object Capture technologies. New APIs introduced will allow developers to create apps that will create 3D models from iPhones and their cameras and LiDAR. Object Capture is an Apple technology that companies like Unity will likely integrate into their Unity development environment. At WWDC Apple introduced RealityKit2, another API for making AR experiences, and the latest software improves rendering options, among other things. ARKit5 is the latest core AR technology stack for developers and now includes "location anchors" that make it possible for AR experiences to be pegged to map locations.
Some of Apple's AR plans feel connected to its secret Smart Car plans and both connect through Apple's map updates, which were very impressive this year. Apple said ARKit5 is used in its latest overlay technologies in Apple Maps.
5 - Snapchat Spectacles AR: Augmented reality on your face. This story is about Snapchat's latest venture into AR glasses. The company is already known for its AR lenses on phones, but the new glasses are a step up. (BBC News)
Snapchat refers to itself as a next-generation camera company and their latest AR glasses technology is firmly centered on AR creators and app developers. The technology is powered by Snap Spatial Engine. (Image: Snapchat_
Big Picture? Snapchat isn't the candidate you would expect to lead in AR glasses but nonetheless the company has released a pair designed initially for "a select group of global creators." This means the company is focusing on beta testing this technology to the AR content creators necessary to provide the AR content apps that would make mass adoption of AR smart glasses actually take off.
Five More Stories
We are skipping the Five More Stories section and the "Member Access—(emTech) Section+" article this month. We will return to a more enhanced version in the near future.
More (emTech) Below Our Special Feature
The Evolving Immersive Experience (VR/AR/XR)
Virtual and Augmented Reality have long histories but likely equally long and dazzling futures.
IN THIS FEATURE WE TAKE A BROAD LOOK AT IMMERSIVE technologies such as VR/AR—scanning across histories, present technologies, companies, and many of the key issues around their success.
Origins of VR
While it may seem that the VR-AR craze emerged only a few years ago, these technologies have had long invention cycles spanning multiple decades which sorted out the many difficulties that make immersive technology experiences so challenging. Even more, the very concepts behind "virtual reality" and the technologies that make it possible go back nearly two centuries.
In 1935 science fiction writer Stanley Weinbaum released Pygmalion's Spectacles, a story about the main character that wears a pair of goggles that look like a gas mask which transports him to a fictional world where his human senses participate in holographic reality. Here's a quote from the short story:
"But listen—a movie that gives one sight and sound. Suppose now I add taste, smell, even touch, if your interest is taken by the story. Suppose I make it so that you are in the story, you speak to the shadows, and the shadows reply, and instead of being on a screen, the story is all about you, and you are in it. Would that make real a dream?"
Weinbaum's character is describing the concept of virtual reality at a level that we actually have not yet achieved in a mass-produced shipping consumer or industrial product. Yet, while this vision from 1935 is remarkable, key technical aspects of virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMDs)—like stereoscopy or what is also known as stereo imaging—first began with Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838 when he was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1840 for his explanation of binocular vision, upon research that led him to construct the stereoscope.
Sir. Charles Wheatstone's mirror stereoscope. His research and this instrument won him the Royal Medal from the Royal Society in 1840. In the image above, images 'D' and 'C' are brought together and combined by the human brain when viewed through lenses focused on two mirrors ('A-B') angled at 45 degrees to the images. (Image: Wiki Commons)
His research proved that the human brain actually combines two images (one eye viewing each) of the same subject take from different points to make the image appear as one with a sense of depth and immersion or three dimensions. His Wheatstone mirror stereoscope is shown above.
However, David Brewster who rivaled Wheatstone developed a hand-held "Brewster-type stereoscope" that caught the attention and admiration of Britain's Queen Victoria when it was demonstrated at the Great Exhibition of 1851. This device used lenses for uniting the dissimilar pictures in 1849, leading to lenticular stereoscopy, which allowed Brewster's device to be much smaller than Sir Charles Wheatstone's invention. Brewster's device, made of wood, resembles the Google Cardboard in some ways.
A Brewster-type stereoscope was enjoyed by Queen Victoria at the Great Exhibition of 1851. The device introduced "lense-based" stere imagery. (Image: Wiki Commons)
These 19th-century stereoscopes would ultimately lead to one of America's most well-known devices commonly purchased for children—the ViewMaster stereoscopes, which led to the craze for "virtual tourism" which is used in modern VR headsets today. End-of-life patients are sometimes allowed to travel to far-away places using VR as part of their care plans.
While stereoscopy was a critical element of the future of VR, another major piece of the modern-day puzzle was motion-tracking. If a user moved their head looking at the stereoscope-based image there was no sense of movement in the image, those devices only simulated depth and being in a far-away environment ("virtual tourism"), which was the big hit of ViewMasters that took millions of users to special places like the Grand Canyon in Arizona.
Morton Heilig's Sensorama offered multi-sensory immersive experiences but he could not get funding and support to mass-manufacture his vision and invention.
Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, created the Sensorama, a real VR machine that a user sat in and combined multiple technologies and stimulated the senses. Sensorama combined 3D video, audio, vibration in the seat the user sat on while using the device, plus smell and atmosphere effects like the wind. In many ways, the Sensorama was a forerunner of Walt Disney's technologies behind their hit Disney World ride Avatar Flight of Passage. Combining so many sensation-based technologies increased the "immersion" into the virtual environment.
Modern VR systems needed more than multimodal sensory systems, they needed motion-tracking. While Morton Heilig would patent the Telesphere Mask as the world's first head-mounted display (HMD) in 1960, it would be one more year in 1961 when two Philco Corporation engineers (Comeau & Bryan) developed the first HMD precursor, known as the Headsight.
The Headsight HMD contained a video screen for each eye and a magnetic motion-tracking system which was linked to a closed-circuit camera. The device was created not for virtual reality (a term not yet coined) but for remote viewing of dangerous situations for military use. The Headsight controlled a camera not a computer-generated image of a 3D environment.
Morton Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull created the first virtual reality HMD named The Sword of Damocles. It never left the lab at MIT Lincoln Laboratories but was a critical development in the eventual modern-day VR HMD.
In 1965 famed computer scientist Ivan Sutherland, considered one of the fathers of CAD (computer-aided design) and computer graphics, presented his vision of the Ultimate Display. This was a vision about observing a virtual world through an HMD that could replicate reality including allowing the user to interact with objects. Sutherland and his student Bob Sproull created The Sword of Damocles, a head-mounted display connected to a computer rather than a camera and it displayed simple wire-frame primitives which would move in response to the HMD. The technology was innovative but it never left the lab.
Through much of the 70s and 80s technologies key to the development of modern immersive experiences would advance thanks to military and aerospace research and funding. Flight simulators were key developments that aided computerized immersive experiences. HMDs continued to advance as did the development of eye-tracking like in McDonnell-Douglas Corporation's HMD technology in its VITAL helmut.
'Virtual Reality' — The Term
In 1985 Jaron Lanier and Thomas Zimmerman founded VPL Research, Inc. and Lanier coined the term 'virtual reality' during this time. The company developed multiple VR devices including a DataSuit with full-body sensors for measuring the movement of arms, legs, and the trunk. DataGlove, EyePhone, and AudioSphere were other devices VPL Research created.
A VPL Research DataSuit, full-body sensors, developed circa 1989, displayed here in this image at the Nissho Iwai showroom in Tokyo, Japan. (Image: Wiki Commons)
In 1988 Autodesk with its Cyberspace Project was the first to implement VR on a low-cost personal computer. Project leader, Eric Gullischsen left Autodesk to form Sense8 Corporation which would develop the WorldToolKit virtual reality SDK. While popular the WorldToolKit and its VR SDK never took off.
Throughout the 90s and the first decade of the 21st century, the VR industry made steady gains, from Sega's Sega VR headset to the development of virtual reality caves. Apple introduced QuickTime VR which actually produced linked 360-degree interactive panoramas, not true virtual reality. Nonetheless, the product was popular but expensive.
In the early 90's serial entrepreneur Paul Travers, who came out of Eastman Kodak's Labs was the founder and president of Forte Technologies, which developed the VFX-1, a helmet-sized VR headset that sold millions of units and was powered by a regular PC. In many ways, the VFX-1 was the closest thing to the eventual VR devices we have today and sold for similar price points suitable for gamers. In 2000, the device was superseded by Interactive Imaging Systems' VFX3D.
In a recent ARK Invest podcast, Forte's founder Paul Travers spoke about the history of his involvement in immersive technologies. Forte Technologies eventually ended and Travers launched Vuzix in 1997. He tells ARK Invest analysts and podcast host, Nicholas Grous, that prior to the late 90s and Vuzix's switch to AR from VR, they took their VR technologies to Raytheon and the US Special Forces.
In the early 90's US Special Forces were testing out Forte's VR helmet-based HMDs but the soldiers were in need of something much lighter in weight and wanted something quite specific. He says in the ARK Invest podcast episode:
"They told us they wanted to get rid of their Toughbooks. They came to [us] and said, 'can you make a pair of glasses that look like Oakleys?' — they call it Oakley Gate. 'Oh man, if you can get through the Oakley Gate half the military is going to buy these glasses.' "
Travers says that the AR market is where his company began to focus, not just to solve the military's challenges but a wide range of industrial solutions where virtual reality serves little purpose. He also notes in the podcast that Covid accelerated his company's products. Noting that in medical environments doctors were limited to possible exposer to Covid-19 patients so they would send one doctor to do the rounds wearing Vuzix immersive technology head-mounted glasses and the other doctors would be able to still participate.
AR and Vuzix
Vuzix today makes a range of products that Travers says are superior to Microsoft's Hololens because that product weighs far too much for a person to wear it all day long without issue. Vuzix's flagship product is the M4000, which Travers characterizes as similar to the failed Google Glasses but it is succeeding.
Remote Support is possible with Vuzix' M-series smart glasses enabling technical field professionals to tap into engineering support back in the office with integrated voice navigation, advanced Waveguide Optics with full-color LDP display, and more. (Image: Vuzix)
The M400 weighs under 4 ounces while the company's competitors can weigh pounds. Called smart enterprise glasses, Vuzix products are targeted at manufacturing, field and remote assist, warehouse logistics, and telemedicine. We do a deeper dive on Vuzix's AR smart glasses in the emTech section below.
Apple and Immersive
Travers says in the ARK Invest podcast that his company may have the leading AR-based smart glasses technologies but they are likely not the company that will popularize AR smart glasses for the mass consumer market. That likely will be Apple.
He says while Vuzix makes AR smart glasses that are not that far from the Oakley's US Special Forces like to wear, he says his wife won't be caught walking down the street in them. "If they are big and bulky or they look odd looking it will fail," he tells ARK Invest analyst Nicholas Grous. He says Vuzix is trying to solve the 'Oakley Gate' problem as it applies to industrial sectors that have much to gain. The consumer space is likely going to be solved by a company like Apple.
He says Apple's AR technologies that are increasingly coming out more advanced are being "beta tested" on iPhones until the Cupertino company can completely solve the equivalent of the "Oakley Gate" problem for the mass consumer.
Apple acquired Montreal VR-AR startup headset maker Vrvana in November of 2017.
Former Apple exec Richard Kerris told Architosh back in 2016 that Apple's failed Newton make valuable lessons for the company with regards to AR. Kerris gave the world a big clue as to why the company is taking so long to even introduce an Oculus Rift competitor in VR. Kerris—who has shared the stage with Steve Jobs more than just about any other Apple exec—says a good way imagine what Apple has planned for VR or AR is to imagine Steve Jobs making the keynote presentation on the new technology. Quoting from Architosh's past article:
"If you have paid a lot of attention to Jobs’ keynotes then you may have noticed a tried-and-true formula for how Apple does a ‘take down’ of competitors and their products in the market. It’s simple: go through all the weaknesses of a product or its technology and list their limitations. Then Jobs would introduce an Apple product that doesn’t have those limitations. And then wax on about how beautiful, thin, light, strong, and long-lasting the product is. And how it all fits into the Apple eco-system."
One of the things Kerris says about VR which is troubling is that it's not ideal for long-term use. On the AR side, Kerris says that the big challenge is the "faceware" that the user must wear. Most industry insiders believe that Apple will solve that problem and introduce AR smart glasses as stylish as any other pair of sun or prescription pair of glasses on the market. In fact, Apple will likely incorporate its advanced technology and increasing medical science expertise to deliver best-in-breed lens technology combined with frame styling that will upend the glass wearing industry much like it has upended the watch industry with Apple Watch.
ARK Invest is predicting the AR Smart Glasses market to grow from USD 1.2 billion globally by end of 2021 to USD 130 billion by 2030. Paul Travers agrees with Grous and says a tipping point is coming in the next few years. Apple is estimated to announce its Apple VR headset in 2023, while its AR smart glasses are estimated for 2025. By that time, Apple Silicon will be at a 3nm chip process enabling powerful computing within a tiny TDP (thermal design profile) suitable for glass frames.
Travers says to Grous in the podcast, "Nobody saw Uber when the iPhone was introduced. But here you go...without the iPhone revolution there would be no Uber." The implication is clear: imagining the AR smart glasses market rising by 100x plus times in just nine years assumes Uber-like giants will emerge out of the AR smart glasses computing platforms once they begin to proliferate. Apple has the best track record making disruptive new technologies take off on a mass-consumption scale. They did it with the iPod, the iPhone, the iPad, and the AppleWatch. It doesn't seem particularly smart to bet that Apple won't do it again with AR smart glasses.
We have more info on Vuzix below in the emTech Section.
Curated content: Emerging Technologies and their potential impact on CAD-based industries.
AR - Augmented Reality Company 'Vuzix'
In our Special Feature article above, which took us through the various history and stages of VR, we wrote briefly about Paul Travers. Travers first created Forte (in two different stages and similar company names) and while it was Forte Technologies they created the VFX-1 VR HMD system in the early 90s, eventually Travers took his company and technologies in the AR direction. Pursuing the 'Oakley Gate' problem—a term that stemmed from his company's involvement working for the US Special Forces, ultimately Travers' looked for the equivalent of the 'Oakley Gate' problem in industrial sectors.
Vuzix M400 and M4000 series smart glasses delivering numerous process advantages to multiple industries. The company makes several series including the Vuzix Blade, and Vuzix Lab Smart Swim units. (Image: Vuzix)
Vuzix has a series of AR smart glasses that utilize the world's smallest MicroLED projector engine they also feature Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, GPS, 64 GB storage, auto-focus 4k camera, flashlight, multiple noise-canceling mics with built-in speaker, voice navigation, and Touchpad. The individual models vary in their specifics.
Enterprise AR Smart Glass Benefits
While Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and others search for the killer app that will propel AR smart glasses at the consumer level, targeted industrial applications make significant bottom-line improvements for enterprises, including increased productivity, the elimination of travel costs, lower carbon footprint, improved safety for workers, reduction in errors, and much more.
Vuzix being used in the manufacturing industry. (Image: Vuzix)
Vuzix solutions target Warehouse Logistics, Manufacturing, Tele-Medicine, and Field Service. During COVID-19 manufacturing sites and warehouses had substantial impacts due to remote-distancing requirements, but it was these very same demands due to the pandemic that grew the market in Tele-Medicine and Field Service. Interestingly, there isn't an AEC sector focus at Vuzix yet and that is a question we have for the company in the future.
Vuzix products enabled "one to many" scenarios for medical doctors during the pandemic where new protocols decreased exposure to doctors to COVID-19 patients. One doctor could do all the rounds and visit patients with a Vuzix AR smart glasses on and remote stream the video or recording to doctor colleagues who had involvement in the visited patient's care. This enabled specialists to provide procedure assistance to non-specialists doctors tending to patients and conducting procedures under pandemic protocols.
Vuzix being used in medicine, particularly surgery. (Image: Vuzix)
In the same way, remote support from engineering centers could be streamed to field technicians handling areas of support they were previously not accustomed to performing. These sessions could also provide training.
Travers makes the point that humans wearing Vuzix AR smart glasses can do order fulfillment faster than those wearing traditional barcode scanning equipment and even offer benefits over robotic automation. In manufacturing, video step confirmation and QA procedures can be streamed through the Vuzix AR smart glasses interface. In all of these environments, AR smart glasses keep both hands free.
Vuzix being used in medicine, particularly surgery. (Image: Vuzix)
Travers says in a corporate video that they believe ultimately AR smart glasses will replace computers but to get there they will need to satisfy two core things: (1) be lightweight so you can wear them all day and evening, and (2) they must have the look and feel of a conventional pair of glasses. In addition to these core aspects, they must deliver the computing experience that can rival smartphones and computers. On the compute side, today Vuzix products weigh just 2.8 ounces. Vuzix devices can run Skype, Zoom, Webex, and more internet-based telecommunications software. They run the Google Android operating system. They can also be dipped underwater and they are IP67 rated for sterilization.
Further Analysis & Commentary: Vuzix is an exciting company and Travers stated on the ARK Invest podcast referenced earlier in this newsletter that they license their technologies to others as well. With a USD 1.3 billion market cap (they are traded on NASDAQ: VUZI) they operate in an AR market sector that is estimated by ARK-INVEST to do USD 1.2 billion by end of 2021 and move to USD 130 billion by 2030. This is an exciting company operating in a blue ocean industrial AR sector.
AR/XR in Construction
In the AEC market, MR-based units are being combined with Trimble's solutions for Microsoft Hololens. It's called the Trimble XR10 with Hololens 2. Only available in the United States, the product is expensive at USD 4,950, which is more than twice the cost of Vuzix's M4000 product. However, Vuzix isn't targeting the AEC world at this time and while it appears its products can view 3D models the Hololens offers very different kinds of attributes.
Trimble XR10 with Hololens 2 (Image: Trimble)
Hololens 2 with Trimble hardhat integration is for overlaying BIM models with project as-built conditions and it can detect clash detection, manage issue tracking, and leverage other collaborative workflows.
A survey shows that the AEC industry is far behind both retail and healthcare in adopting AR/VR technologies. Adoption is expected to accelerate in the next 5-10 years.
Akular AR delivers the ability to walk through and around real-world (100 percent sized) geo-located 3d models in the real world using only your phone or tablet. The software works on both iOS and Google Android.
Arvizio is another AR and MR solution. The company has enterprise solutions for 3D immersive solutions and its flagship solution is called Arvizio Immerse 3D designed to enable geo-distance meetings with colleagues and review 3D models and point cloud.
Further Analysis & Commentary: We are not attempting to put together a comprehensive AR/XR app list in this Xpresso issue but such an endeavor seems warranted in a future issue or Architosh story.
What's Cooking: Future Xpresso Features
Our next issue of Xpresso (#29) is likely going to look at early-stage analysis tools informing sustainable design methods.
We look forward to sharing the story in Xpresso #28 in July.
Biggest CAD Industry News Last Month
(the biggest news and features in May)
Feature: The Wild is Changing the Realities of Work—The Pandemic Just Helped Some AEC pros didn't see the value of VR workflows until the pandemic struck. Now VR workflows are contributing to how work gets done differently for good in AEC. [5-8 min. read] (Architosh). Recommended for all AEC users.
Nemetschek Group—Begins 2021 with Double-Digit Revenue Growth
A financial news report on Nemetschek's growth driven by its transition to subscription and SaaS licensing models. [3-6 min. read] (Architosh).
Bentley Systems announces new acquisitions—sensemetrics and Vista Data Vision
Bentley advances its digital twins strategy around iTwins technology with dual complimenting acquisitions. [5-8 -min read] (Architosh). Recommended digital twins, AEC, and infrastructure professionals
ODA's New Open IFC Viewer 22.3 Release—An Overview
Architosh looks at the latest ODA IFC Viewer for its updated features, including the new ability to measure distances in BIM models. [3-6 min. read] (Architosh).
SCIA Engineer Version 21 Now Released
SCIA Engineer V21 packs big user-interface changes, modernizing the user experience and delivering faster-streamlined performance. [3-6-min read] (Architosh). Recommended for engineering professionals.
Procore Acquires Construction AI Company INDUS.AI
The US's leading CDE tool for construction companies continues to advance its artificial intelligence (AI) capacities with another AI acquisition. [5-8-min read] (Architosh) Recommended for AEC professionals.
Remember you can sign-up for architosh INSIDER Xpresso here -- a unique CAD industry newsletter with a special focus on emergent technologies (emTech) like AI, ML, robotics, 3D printing, AAD, computational design, and smart cities tech.
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Anthony Frausto-Robledo, AIA, NCARB, LEED AP
This is a free newsletter and companion publication to Architosh.com.
Architosh is subject to conflicts of interest when we write about CAD/AEC/MCAD/3D software/hardware and other related tech companies in the market. In the interest of disclosure, we encourage readers of this newsletter and the Architosh website to visit our Ethics page where we maintain a full list of Held Securities and discuss Our Disclosures.
This statement and the intent of this section is consistent with Architosh's Disclosure statement on our Ethics page here. [This rewritten section deprecates all other instances of this section for past issues of the newsletter.]