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和富慈善基金
香港中小學品格塑造實地考察通訊(一)
Character Building in Hong Kong – Field Study
Newsletter 1

(1 April 2020)
是項研究由香港和富慈善基金資助進行。
讀者可通過此通訊了解研究的進度及最新發展。
The research is funded by Wofoo Foundation Limited, Hong Kong.
This newsletter serves to give readers an update of the progress and latest findings of the research.

前言 Foreword


Dr. Joseph Lee, GBS, OStJ, JP
President, Wofoo Social Enterprises
Chairman, Wofoo Foundation

和富社會企業會長
和富慈善基金主席
李宗德博士, GBS, OStJ, 太平紳士
「人和家富,民和國富」是和富社會企業的精神和願景;正如管子所言:衣食足而後知榮辱,作為社會的一份子,我們也期望協助建立一個穩健繁榮、和諧共融的社會,為香港年青人,建構可供自由發展的優良環境。固本培元,教育為先。尤其是品格塑造,更是關鍵因素,因此當今所有發達國家都將塑造具品德素養的良好公民列入教育政策,共同關注。如果我們稍盡綿力,能協助香港教育界總結出一些成功經驗和實踐方案,培育下一代成為關愛包容,能互相尊重的負責任公民,是我們莫大的榮幸。我們拋磚引玉,透過我們「品格塑造」研究團隊早前在香港19間中小學的研究發現,期望能換來真知卓識,集思廣益,一同為民和國富,共同努力。

“Harmony brings a family prosperity, Cohesion makes a nation wealthy” is the motto that lies at the heart of Wofoo Social Enterprises. As a saying of the ancient Chinese philosopher Guan Zhong goes, “One understands honor and dishonor when food and clothing are ample”, we, being a socially responsible organisation, hope to contribute in the building of a steady, prosperous, harmonious and inclusive society which is favourable to the diverse development of our next generation. It is always important to strengthen one’s foundation and to achieve this, we need to start with education. Character building, in particular, is a key element in this process. That is why all developed countries share the same thinking and have listed the nurture of good citizens with character and moral virtues as one of the goals in their education policies. It would be our honour if our humble efforts can help in summarizing some successful experience and practical solutions for the local education sector in nurturing the next generation to become a caring, tolerant, mutually respectful and responsible citizen. This report will share the findings from the field research conducted by our “Character Building” research team at 19 local secondary and primary schools earlier. We hope that our little initiative will encourage collective discussion as well as the exchange of ideas and wisdom. Let us work together towards the shared goal of building a cohesive and prosperous society.

Mr. Alan Chow
Principal Investigator, Character Building Research

品格塑造硏究首席硏究員
鄒秉恩先生
品格教育在社會動亂時勢的角色

見證著香港社會抗爭運動的變化,年青人由之前的「和理非」方式示威,演變成後來的「勇武」抗爭,參加者更有年輕化的趨勢,部分鬥爭更轉移到學校戰場,情況令人憂慮!在動盪的社會氣氛下進行正規學校教育是有難度的。因為許多學者(例如Asmal, 2001; De Klerk & Rens, 2003; Smith & Montgomery, 1997)相信,預早在學生成長時期,多播放正向教育的種子,或進行有計劃的品德教育去塑造學生品格,會有助國家或地方政府管治。例如英國因連串恐襲、汽車炸彈等事件後,重伸學校必須重視品格教育;美國在多次校園暴力及槍擊事件後,也把品格教育放在教育改革的重要議題上。北愛、南非在21世紀初,亦因社會動盪和校園欺凌事件,大力推動價值及品德教育(De Klerk & Rens, 2003)。
 
其實,香港早於2002 年的《基礎教育課程指引》,已提出香港需要培養學生建立積極的人生態度和正面的價值觀,也具體指出學校教育應培育五項價值觀,包括:「國民身份認同」、「責任感」、「尊重他人」、「堅毅」和「承擔精神」[1]。所以在學校推行品格教育並不是新增的事物,只是從社會運動的衝擊看香港學生在品格成長的成效方面,似乎做得不足夠。
 
如何令校園變成一個學生樂學、互相尊重、包容和充滿感恩的地方,建立一個永續、融洽有序的關愛校園,筆者認為起步點可以是把品格塑造的歷程帶進學校,為學生提供充裕空間,逐步建構學生的價值觀,由認知到感知,再轉化為行動實踐正確的品德行為,協助他們建立個人的抱負,利他利己的美好人生。
 
和富慈善基金創辦人李宗德博士,懷著「人和家富,民和國富」的信念,素來關心香港青少年人的健康成長。透過設立基金辦學,以實踐精神去塑造具有良好品格素養的未來人才,目的在建設和回饋社會。為要更了解前線學校如何有效推行品格教育,藉以尋找良方去造福學子,因此成立和富品格塑造研究團隊,於2019年3月開始在中小學的教育現場進行實地考察研究。以下將會有一系列的通訊製作,為的是向教育界同工作階段性交流我們的研究成果,經驗共享。
 
[1] 見香港課程發展議會,《基礎教育課程指引》。2002,頁 2-3。
 
The Role of Character Education During Social Unrest

We witness the shift of social movement in Hong Kong from “peaceful, rational and non-violent” to the more recent “violent” protests. It is worrying to see that protesters are getting younger and schools become part of the battlefield. It poses great challenges to formal schooling at a time of social unrest. Many scholars (such as Asmal, 2001; De Klerk & Rens, 2003; Smith & Montgomery, 1997) believe that the earlier the planting of the seeds of Positive Education or carrying out planned Character Education during the early development of students will help the ruling of national or local government. We see examples around the world. The UK placed high emphasis on Character Education after series of terrorist attacks and car bomb attacks were reported. The US listed Character Education as an important subject for discussion on the nation’s education reform agenda after incidents of mass shootings in schools. Northern Ireland and South Africa also strived to foster Values and Character Education at the beginning of the 21st Century due to social unrest and incidents of bullying on campus (De Klerk & Rens, 2003).   
 
In fact, the Basic Education Curriculum Guide released in Hong Kong back in 2002 has already outlined the importance of building positive attitudes and values among local students, and has specifically listed out the nurturing of five priority values through schooling, namely “National Identity”, “Responsibility”, “Respect for Others”, “Perseverance” and “Commitment”. Therefore, the promoting of Character Education in schools is nothing new. Yet, the impact arising from the recent social movement has suggested that the outcomes of Character Building among local students may be far from being satisfactory.
 
How can we turn our school campus into a place with respect, inclusiveness and appreciation for students to learn happily? And for this campus to be a sustainable, harmonious, caring and mutually supportive one? I think the practice of Character Building in schools can be considered as a starting point. By providing students with ample room and flexibility, establishing their values from cognition to perception step by step, and transforming theory into action with the practice of the right behaviour, we can help them in their process of setting their own personal aspiration and building a wonderful life that can benefit others as well as themselves.
 
Dr. Joseph Lee, founder of Wofoo Foundation, lives up to the motto of “Harmony brings a family prosperity, Cohesion makes a nation wealthy” and has always been caring about the healthy wellbeing of the youth. He put his belief into action by establishing the foundation to run school, aiming to nurture future leaders with good characters and virtues who can contribute back to the society and foster a better Hong Kong. In order to understand better how frontline schools can promote Character Education successfully and to sort out the effective ways in achieving this, a Wofoo “Character Building” research team was set up to conduct field study research at various local secondary and primary schools in March 2019. The following newsletters serve the purpose of periodic updates and sharing of our research findings and experience with fellow education practitioners. 
 
References:

Asmal, K. (2001). Pride vs. arrogance: The new patriotism. Saamtrek: Values, education and democracy in the 21st Century. Conference Report. National Conference. Kirstenbosch, 22-24 February 2001.

De Klerk, J & Rens, J. 2003. The role of values in school discipline. Koers, 68(4):353-371.

Smith, A. & Montgomery, A. (1997). Values in education in Northern Ireland. Belfast :Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.

Curriculum Development Council (2002). Basic Education Curriculum Guide. Hong Kong: Printing Department.
 

研究團隊 The Research Team

首席研究員:
鄒秉恩

研究員:
陳湛明、吳迅榮、黃仲基、鄧兆鴻、文家安

項目經理: 
鄧兆鴻

研究助理:
葉建義、陳冠文、Rose Pennington (澳洲天主教大學楊教授博士生)

榮譽研究顧問:
楊書誠

顧問:
黃景波

研究顧問:
莫慕貞、徐國棟    
 
Principal Investigator:
Alan Ping Yan Chow

Investigators:               
Kenneth Tsan Ming Chan,
Shun Wing Ng,
Steve Chung Kee Wong,
Peter Siu Hung Tang,
Ka On Man

Research Project Manager:
Peter Siu Hung Tang

Research Associate:
Kenneth Kin Yee Yip,  
Simon Koon Man Chan,
Rose Pennington (Prof Yeung's PhD candidate at Australian Catholic University)

Honorary Research Consultant:
Alexander Seeshing Yeung

Advisor:
Edwin King Por Wong

Research Advisor:
Magdalena Mo Ching Mok,
Kwok Tung Tsui

背景 Background

香港社會承傳了中國的教育傳統,大多數中、小學都會以不同的方式向推行品格塑造教育(或稱品德教育、德育、公民教育等等)。要了解香港學校如何在具體這項工作推行,為學生建立些甚麼品格、是否有些成功的良好經驗可資參考,實在需要進行一些實證研究,以找出那些是在品格塑造上最有效、最佳效果的最好模式。

Hong Kong primary and secondary schools, with the legacy of traditional Chinese education, are promoting character education in various forms (with labels such as moral education, values education, civic education, etc.). To understand how the schools build students’ character and what elements they focus on, and whether there are some cases of success from which we can learn to improve implementation, there is a need to conduct evidence-based research. We hope to find the best ways to build students’ character and develop a model for optimal effects.

研究目的 Purpose of Field Work

和富慈善基金十分關注培養青少年人的良好品格,知道學校在青少年人的品格塑造上有關鍵的作用,故希望通過是次實地研究,了解香港學校如何進行品格塑造;有些甚麼有效策略;有些甚麼失敗經驗;成功或失敗的原因是甚麼。期望能從研究中總結一些品格塑造的優良經驗,建構一個「品格塑造概念圖」,並以此作為指導原則,讓不同的單位按所需建構「品格塑造」工作的框架,持續發展。

Wofoo Foundation Limited sees the importance of promoting the character of young people, and the pivotal role of schools in bringing significant effects on building their desirable characters. Through a rigorous field study, the Foundation hopes to bring a better understanding of how schools build their students’ character, what strategies have been found to be effective, and what approaches were not effective and why so we can learn from experiences of failure. We hope that from an evidence-based collection of success stories, we can develop a character building conceptual model, which will form a blueprint that guides good practice. The model will hopefully provide a framework that all schools can adapt for character building (CB) in their specific settings for sustained success.
 

研究問題 Research Questions (RQs)

是項研究期望能解答以下四個問題:
RQ1:學校推行品格塑造活動時,有甚麼關鍵要素?
RQ2:推行品格塑造有甚麼最佳策略/方法?
RQ3:在推行品格塑造工作時,最大的障礙是甚麼?
RQ4:推行品格塑造計劃有效(或無效)的原因?

The research aims to answer 4 RQs.
RQ1.  What are the essential elements of CB?
RQ2.  What are the best ways to facilitate CB?
RQ3.  What may be the barriers to CB?
RQ4.  Why do CB programmes work or don't work?

研究方法 Methods

取樣:
從香港各區(包括港島、九龍、新界、離島)邀請學校參與有關研究,邀請了11所小學、8所中學,共19所學校參與。
 
研究材料及程序:
質性研究主要是到校實境調查,包括:
  1. 學校文件(三年發展計劃、周年發展計劃、周年報告、與品格塑造相關的文件、課程框架、及其他相關文件);
  2. 觀察(與品格塑造相關的課堂、學校集會、課外活動、小息、午膳、上下課情況等);
  3. 訪問會談(受訪者包括校長、家長小組3至5人;教師小組3至5人;學生小組兩組,每組3至5人,小學三年級及六年級學生;中學中二及中四學生)。

又以學生填答問卷作量性研究,取樣目標為參學校的學生:小學四年級及六年級,中學二年級及四年級。
 
Sample.  
19 schools from Hong Kong island, Kowloon, the New Territories, Outlying islands (11 primary and 8 secondary; 19 in total).

Material and procedure.  
The qualitative component included:
  1. document studies (3-year School Development Plan, Annual School Development Plans, School Annual Reports, character-building-related documents, curriculum frameworks, and other related documents),
  2. Observations (CB-related lessons, assemblies, extra-curricular activities, recess, lunch, transition between lessons, etc.)
  3. Interviews – School Principals (individual interview), parents (in groups of 3-5), teachers (in groups of 3-5). students (in groups of 3-5, from Primary 3 and 6, Secondary 1 and 3).
The quantitative component was a survey study with Primary 4 and 6 and Secondary 2 and 4 students from the schools participating also in the qualitative component.

研究發現 Key Findings at this stage

RQ1:品格塑造的關鍵要素:

綜合19所參與研究學校所得的資料,每所學校都有頗長一系列的品格塑造清單,但從資料所見,學校大都沒有清晰界定「品格塑造」的定義。絕大多數學校的持分者未能分辨「良好的品格」和「品格塑造可能帶來的好處」有何分別。更由於推行品格塑造工作時焦點模糊,太多與品格塑造相關的要素要兼顧,以致在推行品格塑造時,效果並不明顯。

這個結果其實絕不令人意外,事實上,它正吻合當今全球品格教育相關學術文獻的結論。相關的學術文獻都顯示,品格塑造是難以定義的,學術研究者和教育專家曾提出超過200項可讓青少年人在學校學習時建立的品格!核心課程緊迫、焦點不清、支援不足、欠缺系統化的評估機制,都是學校要面對的困難,是以學校在推行有關工作時,效果必然有限。

研究發現,一直以來,學校的品格塑造工作大多是在一片渾沌的狀態之下進行,故亟待進一步的研究及整理,並期望能發展一個「品格塑造概念圖」,以帶動較有效的品格塑造工作,並能釐清焦點,讓品格塑造能帶來明確的成效,為社會整體及個人帶來益處。

RQ1.  Essential elements of CB.

From the 19 schools, the data show that every school has a very long list of desired student characters, but from the data, most schools did not give a very clear definition of CB. Almost all schools did not differentiate between desired “characters” from the potential “benefits” of building such characters. There were many elements that schools wished to accomplish, and numerous variables involved in the process, which resulted in CB effects on each element being minimal.

This finding is not surprising. It in fact echoes the current character education literature worldwide. Researchers and educators have highlighted that CB is hard to define. They have proposed over 200 characters to develop, but in schools that mostly operate with an extremely tight curriculum, when there is a lack of focus, inadequate support, and unsystematic evaluation mechanisms, the effects of CB are understandably limited.

Our finding showing the messiness of CB research and practice calls for attention and further research to tidy it up by creating a model for effective CB processes. It is through a clear process that identifies our focus that CB will bring targeted benefits to individuals and society.
研究團隊會不斷更新研究成果,有興趣的讀者請密切注意下期出版。
The research team will keep updating the reader with new information as we progress.
So watch out for the next issue soon.
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